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Thai Durian

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Thai Durian in Ayudhya era

Thai Durian

            Thai durian has a long story. Ayudhya era: In 1685, King Louis XIV of France dispatched an ambassador to deliver a royal message to King Narai the Great in Ayudhya with the goal of developing friendship, spreading Christianity, and contracting trade privileges. When the French embassy finished their business and returned to their homeland, King Narai the Great decided to send a Thai envoy to France in order to make connections with the French as well. When the Thai ambassador returned, King Louis XIV dispatched another ambassador to follow him and arrive in Ayutthaya around September 1687. Monsieur de la Loubre is the name of a Jesuit priest who came to negotiate a trade arrangement with Thailand and was successful. Monsieur de la Loubre is a well-known diplomat and writer who documented what he witnessed about Thailand’s social environment and people’s lives, including agriculture in various sections of the country.

               He wrote about his experiences in Thailand during the time of King Narai the Great, and it was published in French in Paris in 1793. The book was two volumes long and focused on Thai agriculture. One chapter described a fruit called “Durian,” which Thais call “Tourrion,” which is a highly popular fruit in this area. He couldn’t take the overpowering stink and stated that the fruit is the size of a melon and covered with thorns; it also appears like a jackfruit. Furthermore, there are many seeds inside, but they are the size of a chicken egg, which is used to eat, and there is another seed within. According to locals, if it has less seeds, it is a nice durian. However, there are never less than three seeds in a single durian fruit.

               According to all evidence, durian has been grown in central Thailand since the Ayutthaya period. However, no proof was discovered as to where it originated or how it became a part of Thai society. Some Thai believe that it was brought from the southern region, and that it has been improved and bred since the past for the purpose of Thai society’s system, such as people commonly offering the best fruit to monks or as a gift to the land lord, as well as the state system, such as collecting tax on fruit trees, which forces everyone to improve their own crops. As a result, Thailand boasts a wide range of fruit trees up to the present day. It shown that plant breeding efforts in Thailand by villagers began in the Ayutthaya period and is an inheritance from ancestors to the current generation.

Thai Durian in Rattanakosin period

Thai Durian

               Rattanakosin period: The propagation of durian species from Nakhon Si Thammarat Province to Bangkok has been mentioned by “Soon Sundaravej.” Since around 1775, and since 1854, there has been a durian garden at Bang Krang Subdistrict in Bangkok Noi Canal. It is propagated by seeds in the early stages and developed to be planted with stem cuttings from three varieties: Bat thongkam / Ebat, Tongsuk, and karaked. Those who are unable to obtain stem cuttings from the three types must use the seeds of all three as a planting variety. As a result, many hybrid durian species were developed, which has benefited durian breeding until this day. As previously stated, seed propagation had existed since 1854 until the Great Flood of 1942. For over 87 years, resulting in several hybrid durian kinds and propagation in many locations When the big flood of 1942 destroyed several species of durian in Nonthaburi province, and Thonburi was lost due to the garden collapsing due to floods.

                After the big flood of 1942, many gardens survived and became the source of the remaining species, although propagation is slow and must rely on seeds for planting. Due to a lack of information and academic standards, different types of durians have a large number of numbers since the breeder’s genetic history is unknown. There are no rules for naming a species when there is no academic written history record; it may use the name of the person who planted the seed, the name of the place, or the location where the plant germinated or thrived; additionally, the distinctive features of the shape, color, taste, etc., determine the naming convention. Furthermore, durian cultivation has spread to many places, leading a significant number of species to spread to new planting sites. The following is a list of durian varieties compiled from the document. There are up to 227 species, each of which may have several variants that are the same species, but a new species name was given. As a result, it is repetitive and unclear, and it cannot be used academically as it should.

Thai Durian Features

              Features: Durian has the shape of a tree, leaves, and fruit that are distinguishing features, and the fruit and bark contain sharp thorns, and the flesh is attractive. Furthermore, it has a distinct aroma and flavor that Asians really enjoy, hence it is regarded as a unique fruit. As the King of Tropical Fruit, Asians enjoy durian, and the fruit is sometimes utilized as a souvenir on special occasions. However, because durian is a huge fruit with a distinctive fragrance, especially as it ripens, it is prohibited to bring it on planes or into air-conditioned hotels. Westerners who are unfamiliar with durian’s sweet flavor and powerful odors tend to loathe it. The south Thai durian is distinct from the plentiful and variety native durian, as well as the reputation of Preserved Durian manufactured from native durians. In general, durians from the south are thought to Chemicals are utilized less frequently than in durians from the eastern region.

               Despite the fact that more chemicals are utilized nowadays, particularly in off-season durian cultivation. As a result, durians from the south help to promote the timing of sales and exports abroad. Thai durians are often regarded as the highest quality and most popular on a national scale. Thailand, for example, is the largest durian exporting country, followed by Malaysia. This is capable of producing durian Malaysians, on the other hand, continue to enjoy Thai durian. Durian is the most widely grown fruit in the southern region and has been for a long time. Durian is grown by a large number of farms or families. In the south, the harvesting season for durians is quite long, and they can be produced even during the off-season.

Thai Durian

Thai Durian Nutrition

               Nutrition: Each durian is made up of 55 to 66 percent peel, 12 to 15 percent seed, and 22 to 30 percent edible pulp, depending on the variety. Durian flesh is a high-energy fruit, with 100 grammes of meat, or roughly two seeds, providing between 134 and 187 kcal depending on the variety. Which is believed to have a high energy content when compared to other fruits together. This is due to the high carbohydrate and fat content of durian meat. In addition, durian flesh is abundant in protein and minerals like calcium and phosphorus. As a result, it is important to eat durian responsibly. Which meal do you eat durian with? When you eat durian, try to avoid other high-energy items, such as deep-fried foods, limit your next meal, and increase your physical activity. People with underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes must exercise extra caution when eating.

                You can have some durian if you want to, but don’t consume too much. Furthermore, durian pulp has a high concentration of natural Sulphur, which contributes to the sulfur-like scent of durians. As a result, the ancient people arranged durian as a hot food that must be balanced with cold fruit, specifically mangosteen, and there is also a recommendation that you should not eat durian with alcoholic beverages because the Sulphur compounds in durian will react with each other, resulting in toxicity to the body. Because Sulphur is extremely soluble in alcohol, it gets taken into the bloodstream more quickly. The heat of Sulphur that swiftly travels into the bloodstream is harmful to the body.

              The nutritional value of durian, size 100 grammes, provides 174 kcal of energy. It also contains important nutrients: 27.09 g of carbohydrates, 3.8 g of dietary fiber, 5.33 g of fat, 1.47 g of protein, 44 mg of vitamin A, 0.374 mg of vitamin B1, 0.2 mg of vitamin B2, and vitamin B3 1.74. mg, Vitamin B5 0.23 mg, Vitamin B6 0.316 mg, Vitamin B9 36 mcg, Vitamin C 19.7 mg, Calcium 6 mg, Iron 0.43 mg, Magnesium 30 mg, Manganese 0.325 mg, Phosphorus 39 mg, Potassium 436 mg, Sodium 2 mg, and Zinc. 0.28 mg.

Thailand's seven most popular durian species:

Thai Durian

Thai Durian: Monthong species

            Larger and fleshier than other cultivars, withering seeds, and tender yellow flesh. The smell is not overpowering, the taste is quite sweet, and it is the easiest to locate. The meat will not be soggy after it is tender. Durian is commonly processed into stir-fried durian and frozen durian.

Thai Durian: The Chani species

            It has a dark yellow flesh color, is sticky and fibrous, has a strong odor, a pleasant taste, small seeds, and few seeds. It will smell stronger than previously when it is ripe. It is commonly used to make durian sticky rice and durian ice cream, both of which must contain a characteristic durian aroma as a key ingredient.

Thai Durian: Kanyao or Long Stalk Species

            Durian from Nonthaburi Province has lovely golden flesh that is fine, sticky, and has few fibers. When mature, the shape retains its original shape and is not deformed. The fruit is larger and the stalk is longer than in other durian kinds. There are numerous and huge seeds. The cost is prohibitively expensive.

Thai Durian: Kradom specie

           Durian from Nonthaburi province, which is well-known in Rayong province, is small and lightweight. One durian weighs only one kilogram and is easy and quick to grow. It features pale yellow flesh with a golden hue, pomegranate seeds, and a sweet taste comparable to the Monthong species.

Thai Durian: Species of Nokkrachip

            It is smaller than a conventional durian, weighing only one kilogram. It has a light-yellow flesh color, a pleasant, non-oily flavor, large seeds, and a thin skin. When ripe, it is simple to make mistakes, and it is simple to grow. However, because it has less meat, it is the most affordable durian.

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Thai Durian: Long Lin Laplae species

           Durian from Uttaradit Province, it is the result of durian crossbreeding and has become Thailand’s best durian. The flesh is light yellow, dry, and pleasant, with no smearing on the hands. The smell isn’t overpowering, the seeds are little, and the price is steep, but it’s not difficult to find.

Thai Durian: Puangmanee species

            Durian from Chanthaburi Province. Its original name was red-fleshed durian. One durian is around the size of a palm and weighs less than a kilogram. The flesh is dark yellow with an orange hue, silky, and devoid of any fibers. However, it has huge seeds, resulting in a lower flesh-to-seed ratio, a premium price, and is difficult to find because it is rarely cultivated.

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